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Bhubaneswar (The Temple City)

Bhubaneswar City
Bhubaneswar is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha. The ancient city of Bhubaneswar is also known as the Temple City of eastern India. Bhubaneswar, derived its name from Tribhubaneswar, which literally means the Lord of the Three World (Tribhuban), which refers to Shiva. It is also known as Mandiramalini (The Temple City) also as Ekamra Kshetra and Kalinga Nagari. It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India. 

The city has a history of over 2000, years while the modern city emerged in 1948. The city was the ancient capital of the Kalinga Empire. The City is endowed with many tourist attractions and religious spots with more than 500 temples like the Lingaraj Temple, Parashurameswar Temple, Mukteswar Temple etc. are standing since ancient times and boasts of its rich culture and heritage. Together with Puri and Konark, Bhubaneswar forms the Swarna Tribhuja (Golden Triangle), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.

Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital in 1948, the year after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Konigsberger in 1946. It is one of modern India's first planned city with wide roads and many gardens and parks. It is a fast developing city with modern amenities. It is located in Khordha district of Odisha. The city is bounded by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east, the Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary and Nandankanan Zoo lie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively. The Bhubaneswar urban development area consists of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation area, 173 villages and two other municipalities spread over 393.57 square kilometres. As per the 2011 census of India, Bhubaneswar had a population of 837,737 of which males was 445,233 while the number of females were 392,504. The people here speak Odia and bears resembles to the Hindi, Bengali and Assamese language. 

Bhubaneswar experiences tropical climate. The summer season (From March to June) gets very hot with the average maximum temperature going slightly above 40° Celsius. The winters (From November to February) in Bhubaneshwar are chilly, but not extremely cold and the place gets relief from the hot climate during monsoons (From July to October). The city receives approximately 1450 mm of rainfall.

Bhubaneswar is an administrative, information technology, educational and tourism city. Bhubaneswar is ranked as the best place to do business in India by World Bank. Bhubaneswar has emerged as one of the fast-growing, important trading and commercial hub in the state and eastern India.  In 2012, Bhubaneswar was ranked third among Indian cities, in terms of starting and operating a business by the World Bank. In 2009, Odisha was ranked ninth among Indian states in terms of software export by NASSCOM, with most IT/ITES companies established in Bhubaneswar. According to a 2012 survey, among the tier-II cities in India, Bhubaneswar has been chosen as the best for conducting IT/ITES business.

The infrastructure of Bhubaneswar is great and there are many modern modes of transport. The Biju Patnaik international airport in Bhubaneswar is the major and sole international airport in Odisha, which is connecting all the major city in India and the city to Southeast Asia and the Middle East by daily flights. The East Coast Railway has its headquarters in Bhubaneswar. Bhubaneswar railway station is one of the main stations of the Indian railway network. Bhubaneswar having a major railway junction at Khurdha for South Eastern railways. Besides there are more two another station at Bhubaneswar connected to all major cities in India. The city being the capital, is well connected to all parts of the state and nearby states as well. It is connected to the rest of Odisha and India by National Highways-NH 5. Bhubaneswar has wide roads in grid form in the central city. There is regular bus service to and from all major cities. 

Bhubaneswar, is emerging as a knowledge hub in India with several new public and private universities, including the establishment of an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) and an All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), are India's new National Universities by the government, as well as Vedanta University, one of the world's largest private universities. Today the city has some of the renowned universities in the country. Some of the major universities are the Utkal University, Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Kalinga institute of Industrial Technology and many more. Utkal University, established in 1939, is the oldest, with 267 affiliated general colleges, 15 law colleges, six medical and pharmacy colleges. There used to be students from far away countries like Persia, Greece and China to study mathematics, philosophy and astronomy. There are plenty of engineering colleges, science colleges, technology, higher studies and many more. 

The Cultural Heritage of Bhubaneswar is opulent and unmatched anywhere in the Indian subcontinent. Bhubaneswar is supposed to have had over one thousand temples; earning the tag of the Temple City of India. Some of the famous temples include, Lingaraj Temple, Muktesvara Temple, Rajarani Temple, Ananta Vasudeva Temple. Apart from the ancient temples, other important temples were built in recent times include Ram Mandir and ISKCON. The Cultural Heritage of Bhubaneswar includes the famous Odissi dance form. The Odissi dance originated from Odisha. Odissi is considered by some historians as an offshoot of the Hindustani Classical music of northern India- although the two are quite distinct from each other. Odissi dance is generally accompanied by Odissi music. The State Museum offers archaeological artifacts, weapons, local arts and crafts as well as insights into Odisha's natural and indigenous history. The State Museum has the world's largest collection of palm leaf paintings. 

The Fairs and Festivals in Bhubaneswar also has a magnetic attraction for visitors from all over India and the world. People here celebrate 13 festivals in 12 months which is incredible. The festivals and celebrations go on the whole year with the same enthusiasm and energy. Some of the grand festivals here are the Makar Mela, Rath Yatra, Ekamra Utsav, Kalinga Mahotsav, Parab tribal festival, Durga Puja, Ashokastami and Maha Shivaratri. 

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